TAILIEUCHUNG - Economic Policy Thoughts for Today and Tomorrow phần 2

ngay sau khi ông không còn ở một vị trí để cung cấp cho khách hàng của mình dịch vụ tốt hơn và cung cấp cho nó với chi phí thấp hơnChính sách kinh tế thị trường. Tuy nhiên, các công nhân cũng như các nhà sản xuất nguyên liệu có được lợi ích ngay lập tức. Phần lớn đã nói, | 1st Lecture Capitalism Descriptive terms which people use are often quite misleading. In talking about modem captains of industry and leaders of big business for instance they call a man a chocolate king or a cotton king or an automobile king. Their use of such terminology implies that they see practically no difference between the modern heads of industry and those feudal kings dukes or lords of earlier days. But the difference is in fact very great for a chocolate king does not rule at all he serves. He does not reign over conquered territory independent of the market independent of his customers. The chocolate king or the steel king or the automobile king or any other king of modern industry depends on the industry he operates and on the customers he serves. This king must stay in the good graces of his subjects the consumers he loses his kingdom as soon as he is no longer in a position to give his customers better service and provide it at lower cost than others with whom he must compete. Two hundred years ago before the advent of capitalism a man s social status was fixed from the beginning to the end of his life he inherited it from his ancestors and it never changed. If he was born poor he always remained poor and if he was born rich a lord or a 1 2 ECONOMIC POLICY duke he kept his dukedom and the property that went with it for the rest of his life. As for manufacturing the primitive processing industries of those days existed almost exclusively for the benefit of the wealthy. Most of the people ninety percent or more of the European population worked the land and did not come in contact with the city-oriented processing industries. This rigid system of feudal society prevailed in the most developed areas of Europe for many hundreds of years. However as the rural population expanded there developed a surplus of people on the land. For this surplus of population without inherited land or estates there was not enough to do nor was it possible for them to work