TAILIEUCHUNG - Aluminum Oxide
Almost 4000 years ago Egyptians and Babylonians used aluminum compounds in various chemicals and medicines. Herodotus mentioned alum in the fifth century . and Pliny referred to “alumen,” now known as alum, as a mordant to fix dyes to textiles around 80 . In 1754 Marggraf showed that a distinct compound existed in both alum and clays. In 1761 the French chemist Guyton de Morveau proposed the name “alumine” for the base in alum, identified in 1787 by Antoine Lavosier as the oxide of a then-undiscovered element. By the 1700s the earthy base alumina was recognized as the potential source of a metallic element. Greville (1798) described a mineral from India that had the. | Aluminum Oxide 1 Aluminum Oxide L. Keith Hudson Aluminum Company of America Alcoa Center Pennsylvania 15069 USA Chanakya Misra Aluminum Company of America Alcoa Center Pennsylvania 15069 United States Anthony J. Perrotta Aluminum Company of America Alcoa Center Pennsylvania 15069 USA Karl Wefers Aluminum Company of America Alcoa Center Pennsylvania 15069 USA F. s. Williams Aluminum Company of America Alcoa Center Pennsylvania 15069 USA 1. General Aspects . 1 . Aluminum Hydroxides . 2 . Aluminum Oxide Hydroxides . 3 . Aluminum Oxide Corundum . 4 . TheAl2O3-H2O System. 4 . Thermal Decomposition of Aluminum Hydroxides . 5 . Aluminates and Related Compounds . 7 2. Bauxite the Principal Raw Material . 7 . Definition and Geology . 7 . Composition and Properties . 7 . Genesis of Bauxites. 9 . Major Bauxite Deposits. 10 . Economic Aspects. 11 3. Bayer Process. 11 . History and Procedure. 11 . Bauxite Preparation . 12 . Digestion. 13 . Equipment . 15 . Residue Separation. 17 . Precipitation . 20 . Impurities. 23 . Calcination. 25 . Evaporation . 26 . Residue Disposal . 27 . Energy in the Process . 28 . Economic Aspects. 29 4. Other Processes for Alumina Production . 29 . Raw Materials . 29 . Alkaline Processes. 30 . Acid Processes . 31 5. Metallurgical Alumina. 32 . Alumina Properties Required for Smelting . 32 . Typical Specifications for Metallurgical Alumina. 33 6. Industrial Alumina Chemicals . . 33 . Aluminum Hydroxides . 33 . Adsorbent and Catalytic Aluminas 34 . Preparation of Activated Aluminas . 34 . Adsorbent Applications. 36 . Catalytic Applications. 37 7. Ceramic Uses of Alumina. 38 . Calcined Alumina. 39 . Fused Alumina. 39 8. Toxicology and Industrial Hygiene 39 9. References. 39 1. General Aspects Almost 4000 years ago Egyptians and Babylonians used aluminum compounds in various chemicals and medicines. Herodotus mentioned alum .
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