TAILIEUCHUNG - an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations phần 8

Đồng tiền của một nhà nước tuyệt vời, chẳng hạn như Pháp hoặc Anh, thường bao gồm gần như hoàn toàn của đồng tiền riêng của mình. Nếu đồng tiền này, do đó, tại bất kỳ thời gian mòn, clipt, hoặc nếu không bị xuống cấp thấp hơn giá trị tiêu chuẩn của nó, nhà nước của một cải cách của đồng tiền của nó có thể effectually | The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith 1467 13 equal to the value which it adds to those parts so that the value of the whole amount is not at any one moment of time in the least augmented by it. The person who works the lace of a pair of fine ruffles for example will sometimes raise the value of perhaps a pennyworth of flax to thirty pounds sterling. But though at first sight he appears thereby to multiply the value of a part of the rude produce about seven thousand and two hundred times he in reality adds nothing to the value of the whole annual amount of the rude produce. The working of that lace costs him perhaps two years labour. The thirty pounds which he gets for it when it is finished is no more than the repayment of the subsistence which he advances to himself during the two years that he is employed about it. The value which by every day s month s or year s labour he adds to the flax does no more than replace the value of his own consumption during that day month or year. At no moment of time therefore does he add anything to the value of the whole annual amount of the rude produce of the land the portion of that produce which he is continually consuming being always equal to the value which he is continually producing. The extreme poverty of the greater part of the persons employed in this expensive though trifling manufacture may satisfy us that the price of their work does not in ordinary cases exceed the value of their subsistence. It is otherwise with the work of farmers and country labourers. The rent of the landlord is a value which in ordinary cases it is continually producing over and above replacing in the most complete manner the whole consumption the whole expense laid out upon the employment and maintenance both of the workmen and of their employer. Artificers manufacturers and merchants can augment the revenue and wealth of their society by parsimony only or as it in this system by privation that is by depriving themselves a part of the funds .