TAILIEUCHUNG - an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations phần 5

Trong lời nói đầu, nó than phiền nhiều sự xấc xược của công chức, những người cố gắng để tăng tiền lương của mình khi chủ nhân. Vì vậy, ordains rằng tất cả các công chức và người lao động cho tương lai nên được hài lòng với các và nó không phải là không thể xảy ra rằng việc trao đổi thực sự là quá. | The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith of a single life by trade and manufacturers frequently from a very small capital sometimes from no capital. A single instance of such a fortune acquired by agriculture in the same time and from such a capital has not perhaps occurred in Europe during the course of the present century. In all the great countries of Europe however much good land still remains uncultivated and the greater part of what is cultivated is far from being improved to the degree of which it is capable. Agriculture therefore is almost everywhere capable of absorbing a much greater capital than has ever yet been employed in it. What circumstances in the policy of Europe have given the trades which are carried on in towns so great an advantage over that which is carried on in the country that private persons frequently find it more for their advantage to employ their capitals in the most distant carrying trades of Asia and America than in the improvement and cultivation of the most fertile fields in their own neighbourhood I shall endeavour to explain at full length in the two following books. 293 Book III Of the different Progress of Opulence in different Nations CHAPTER I Of the natural Progress of Opulence 855 1 The great commerce of every civilised society is that carried on between the inhabitants of the town and those of the country. It consists in the exchange of rude for manufactured produce either immediately or by the intervention of money or of some sort of paper which represents money. The country supplies the town with the means of subsistence and the materials of manufacture. The town repays this supply by sending back a part of the manufactured produce to the inhabitants of the country. The town in which there neither is nor can be any reproduction of substances may very properly be said to gain its whole wealth and subsistence from the country. We must not however upon this account imagine that the gain of the town is the loss .