TAILIEUCHUNG - Linzey - Vertebrate Biology - Chapter 12

C H A P T E R 1 2 Intraspecific Behavior and Ecology Very few animals are not, at one time or another, “social.” While the social nature of schools of fish, flocks of migrating geese, and herds of African big game animals is obvious, one might hesitate to use the word “social” to describe the intricate. | I Text Linzey Vertebrate Biology 12. Intraspecific Behavior and Ecology The McGraw-Hill Companies 2003 CHAPTER 12 Intraspecific Behavior and Ecology INTRODUCTION Very few animals are not at one time or another social. While the social nature of schools of fish flocks of migrating geese and herds of African big game animals is obvious one might hesitate to use the word social to describe the intricate interaction between the members of a breeding pair or between parents and offspring. Likewise the fighting between rival males in the spring might at first glance seem to deserve the epithet antisocial rather than social. The complex interactions of individuals with kin groups such as Florida scrub jays Aphelocoma coerulescens is much different from the way individuals of non-kin groups such as a flock of gulls interact. Yet all of these interactions have a great deal in common all contribute to the success of the species and all depend on communication albeit through many different methods between individuals. In short social behavior the joint activities that make an animal community function depends on various types of interactions among individuals each playing its part in communication with others. The terms for groups of vertebrates are listed in Appendix II. Many have their origins quite far back in history some descend from the hunting royalty of England France and Germany. SOCIAL INTERACTIONS Social animals do much more than merely stay together. They do things together the activities of all members are jointly timed and oriented and they do this too by influencing each other. A family of ducklings for example goes through a common diurnal rhythm. Part of the day they feed keeping close together wherever they go. On other occasions they bathe together and swim to the shore together where they may spend half an hour or so preening standing next to each other. Then they fall asleep side by side. Even while sleeping ducks and many other birds continue to .