TAILIEUCHUNG - How the Japanese Learn to Work 2nd edition phần 8

Hai động từ thông dụng khác được sử dụng để chỉ tình trạng hay thuộc tính, trong một vài ngữ cảnh: aru (phủ định là nai) đối với những vật vô tri giác và iru (phủ định là inai) cho những đồ vật có tri giác. Ví dụ, Neko ga iru "Có một con mèo", Ii kangae-ga nai "[Tôi] không có một ý tưởng hay". | Training in the enterprise 127 Table Work-related study programmes a questionnaire survey Private railways Metal engineering Chemicals Electrical All Number of firms in sample 7 10 18 15 50 Number of worker respondents 388 414 470 783 2 055 Is there any study training programme going on in your workplace Yes 89 25 82 88 74 Question to the Yeses only Do you take part and if so Enthusiastically 14 5 18 19 17 Because it s necessary for your work 44 53 47 51 49 Because you have to 40 34 32 25 31 Not involved 2 7 3 3 3 How much of it is outside working hours None of it 48 45 39 22 33 Some of it 14 30 39 33 30 Most of it 15 3 10 24 17 All of it 15 4 4 10 9 Source Kokumin seikatsu sentaa. Kinrosha no yoka ni kansuru kenkyu A survey of workers leisure 1986. As might be expected the specific interest of trade union leaders apart from the general interest in making the firm efficient and prosperous which they share with managers lies in making sure that their members are not put in the uncomfortable position of doing jobs they have not been properly trained for and that they have the best chance of learning what they need in order to develop their careers within the firm. Not that is to say to persuade employers to help workers to acquire general skills which they might use to get jobs elsewhere. There being few zero-sum elements involved training would seem an ideal field for union-management co-operation. It seems however not as common as might be expected. In the 1994 Sample 5 Minkan 1994 42 per cent of the 2 600 respondent firms had a union. Of those firms in 17 per cent the training programme was a matter of joint discussion and 128 How the Japanes learn to work agreement in another 25 per cent the management consulted the union and took their comments aboard in 23 per cent the training programme was simply something the management notified to the union and in the remaining 35 per cent the union had no involvement with training at all. Another study Rodosho 1994 .

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