TAILIEUCHUNG - Gale Encyclopedia Of American Law 3Rd Edition Volume 9 P5

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law Volume 9 P5 fully illuminates today's leading cases, major statutes, legal terms and concepts, notable persons involved with the law, important documents and more. Legal issues are fully discussed in easy-to-understand language, including such high-profile topics as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, physician-assisted suicide and thousands more. | 28 SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL DISTRICTS PRIVATE SCHOOL VOUCHERS Church vs. State The specifics of school tuition voucher systems vary from program to program but generally such systems offer parents of schoolchildren a tax-funded voucher that is redeemable at the educational institution of their choice. The vouchers are issued yearly or at some other regular interval and they pay for a certain amount of tuition fees each year at nonpublic and alternative charter schools. The most controversial programs allow parents to use the publicly funded vouchers to pay tuition at a religious school. Private school vouchers implicate at least two provisions in the . Constitution the establishment and free exercise of religion clauses in the first amendment. According to the . supreme court the establishment clause prohibits the federal government and the states from setting up a religious place of worship passing laws that aid religion and giving preference to one religion or forcing belief or disbelief in any religion Everson v. Board of Education 330 . 1 67 S. Ct. 504 91 L. Ed. 711 1947 . Private school vouchers have been challenged under the establishment clause because they involve a form of governmental support that may be used for religious-oriented activities. Critics of private school vouchers have charged that taxpayer support for religious schools is a patent violation of the establishment clause. Critics also note that because vouchers do not cover the entire amount of tuition at a private school the option of private school remains out of reach for the lowest-income students. Opponents of private school vouchers further claim that vouchers rob public schools of funds because funding is based in part on student enrollment. Finally critics maintain that vouchers implicate other constitutional provisions such as the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment because they provide taxpayer funds to institutions that may discriminate on the basis of race .