TAILIEUCHUNG - Introdungcing English language part 44

Introdungcing English language part 44: 'In this exciting new textbook, Louise Mullany and Peter Stockwell have provided a fresh and imaginative set of alternatives for teaching and learning a huge amount about the English language. The book allows tor creative and lateral approaches to developing an understanding of important linguistic concepts and, together with the thought-provoking activities, and accessible readings, guarantees there is something to stimulate every learner. | Jeremy Smith 244 EXTENSION LINGUISTIC READINGS oxa was originally synonymous with Old French boef cf. Latin bos . The latter was borrowed into English as beef but the meaning became narrowed as flesh of the ox . Both processes 1 and 2 display a differentiation of conceptual meaning the pairs shirt skirt ox beef form contrastive groups which could be expressed formalistically. But differentiation can also take place with regard to associative connotational and metaphorical meaning. One good example of this process is to do with register-distinctions between native vocabulary and French-derived loanwords it is felt by a speaker of Present-Day English that a French-derived word such as commence is of a higher register than begin the latter form being directly descended from Old English. L. Bloomfield s comment 1933 394 is relevant to both internally and externally induced variation where a speaker knows two rival forms they differ in connotation since he has heard them from different persons and under different circumstances . As a result synonyms are never exact the way in which the variational spaces available to words overlap with each other seems to be an established fact of the nature of the lexicon and is the result of the varying nature of contacts between people. When these contacts take place between the users of different languages the subsequent reorganisations seem to be particularly large. The result of these two processes externally and internally induced variation is that any given language-state whether individual or group consists of a mixture of variant forms. These variants form a pool rather like the pool of mutations in biological evolution from which subsequent selection is made. And just as in biological evolution so in linguistic evolution there are factors which condition the kinds of choices which take place. Issues to consider Evaluate the usefulness of Smith s innovative notion of variational space. He develops the idea here in order to be

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