TAILIEUCHUNG - Introdungcing English language part 15

Introdungcing English language part 15:'In this exciting new textbook, Louise Mullany and Peter Stockwell have provided a fresh and imaginative set of alternatives for teaching and learning a huge amount about the English language. The book allows tor creative and lateral approaches to developing an understanding of important linguistic concepts and, together with the thought-provoking activities, and accessible readings, guarantees there is something to stimulate every learner. | B3 70 DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF ENGLISH Each of these four maxims follows the maximise and minimise style of the politeness principle itself. For tact speakers should minimise cost to other and maximise benefit to other . With generosity speakers should minimise benefit to self and maximise cost to self . With approbation speakers should minimise dispraise of other and maximise praise of other . With modesty speakers should minimise praise of self and maximise dispraise of self . Work your way through these four politeness maxims and write down scenarios from your day-to-day interactions where you have abided by these principles. Did these strategies always work in maintaining co-operativeness and harmony Can you think of scenarios where you did not abide by these politeness maxims If so what happened By far the most influential theory of pragmatic principles for politeness is Brown and Levinson s 1987 set of politeness universals. Although Brown and Levinson s theory has been criticised it does provide a systematic account of the crucial role that politeness plays in the conversational strategies we use when interacting with one another. Many pragmatics researchers still draw upon many of the specific principles from Brown and Levinson s work. Brown and Levinson s 1987 theory is based upon the concept of face the public self-image that all rational adults across all cultures possess. Face consists of two components negative face the desire to be unimpeded and positive face the desire to be liked admired or needed. All participants in spoken interaction emotionally invest in face and it must be constantly considered. Influenced by Grice s co-operative principle Brown and Levinson argue that it is in the mutual interests of interactants to maintain each other s face in conversation. Strategies known as positive politeness and negative politeness are identified to attend to individuals positive and negative face respectively see below . They are designed to enable .