TAILIEUCHUNG - Introdungcing English language part 10

Introdungcing English language part 10: 'In this exciting new textbook, Louise Mullany and Peter Stockwell have provided a fresh and imaginative set of alternatives for teaching and learning a huge amount about the English language. The book allows tor creative and lateral approaches to developing an understanding of important linguistic concepts and, together with the thought-provoking activities, and accessible readings, guarantees there is something to stimulate every learner. | A10 40 INTRODUCTION KEY BASIC CONCEPTS the internet and therefore the dominant form of all different types of computer-mediated communication. Academic courses and degree programmes devoted solely to World Englishes have also emerged along with numerous publications on the topic. The term World Englishes can thus legitimately be seen as a sub-disciplinary area of English language enquiry in its own right. The circles model In the 1980s Braj Kachru 1986 now commonly perceived as the most influential global figure in the field produced a framework for conceptualising World Englishes. This has proved to be the most influential approach which researchers use as an entry point to studying World Englishes. Kachru argued that instead of thinking about English in singular form the language should be seen as a pluralised concept. The socio-linguistic make-up of the whole range of different types of Englishes around the world should be perceived as belonging within one of three concentric circles which he termed the Inner Outer and Expanding circles. The Inner Circle refers to the UK Canada the United States New Zealand and Australia where the English language has its linguistic basis and where it is associated with longevity tradition and culture. This inner circle loosely corresponds with the acronym ENL English as a Native Language. The Outer Circle refers to contexts where English has become an official language due to colonisation which Kachru maps onto the category of ESL English as a Second Language. Examples of this include Nigeria Singapore Malaysia and India. Finally the Expanding Circle refers to situations where English is used as a foreign language commonly referred to as EFL contexts. Prototypical examples of the third circle are the use of English in China and Japan see D10 for further details on Kachru s model . World Englishes should thus be viewed as a collective all-encompassing term which includes all of these different circles. Kachru s model of multiple