TAILIEUCHUNG - Gale Encyclopedia Of American Law 3Rd Edition Volume 1 P3

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law Volume 1 P3 fully illuminates today's leading cases, major statutes, legal terms and concepts, notable persons involved with the law, important documents and more. Legal issues are fully discussed in easy-to-understand language, including such high-profile topics as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, physician-assisted suicide and thousands more. | 8 ABIDING CONVICTION ABIDING CONVICTION A definite conviction of guilt derived from a thorough examination of the whole case. Used commonly to instruct juries on the frame of mind required for guilt proved beyond a reasonable doubt. A settled or fixed conviction. ABINGTON SCHOOL DISTRICT V. SCHEMPP In 1963 the . Supreme Court banned the Lord s prayer and Bible reading in public schools in Abington School District v. Schempp 374 . 203 83 S. Ct. 1560 10 L. Ed. 2d 844. The decision came one year after the Court had struck down in engel v. vitale a state-authored prayer that was recited by public school students each morning 370 . 421 82 S. Ct. 1261 8 L. Ed. 2d 601 1962 . Engel had opened the floodgates Schempp ensured that a steady flow of anti-school prayer rulings would continue into the future. Schempp was in many ways a repeat of Engel the religious practices with which it was concerned were nominally different but the logic used to find them unconstitutional was the same. This time the majority went one step further issuing the first concrete test for determining violations of the First Amendment s Establishment Clause. The Schempp ruling involved two cases its namesake and Murray v. Curlett 228 Md. 239 179 698 Md. 1962 . The Schempp case concerned a 1949 pennsylvania law that forced public schools to start each day with a reading of ten Bible verses 24 Pa. Stat. 151516 . The law did not specify which version of the Bible should be used for instance it could be the Catholic Douay text or the Jewish version of the Old Testament. But local school officials only bought the Protestant King James Version. Teachers ordered students to rise and recite the verses reverently and in unison or as in the Abington School District students in a broadcasting class read the verses over a public-address system. Teachers could be fired for refusing to participate and pupils occasionally were segregated from others if they did not join in the daily reading. The .