TAILIEUCHUNG - Introdungcing English language part 16

Introdungcing English language part 16: 'In this exciting new textbook, Louise Mullany and Peter Stockwell have provided a fresh and imaginative set of alternatives for teaching and learning a huge amount about the English language. The book allows tor creative and lateral approaches to developing an understanding of important linguistic concepts and, together with the thought-provoking activities, and accessible readings, guarantees there is something to stimulate every learner. | B4 76 DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF ENGLISH statement about an aspect of the world or another world That man is fat . Of course sentences can appear in other forms too. Negatives deny a statement about the world That man is not fat . Interrogatives ask a question about the world Is that man fat Imperatives give a command to the interlocutor Lose weight Subjunctives point explicitly to unrealised speculative or doubtful possibilities in the world If I were fat I d be happy. Exclamatory sentences make an intensive expression about the state of the world What a fat man These are simple sentences rather than compound or complex sentences because they consist of one single clause. A compound sentence consists of several clauses chained together with a connective of one sort or another and then but though so because and so on . The clauses in a compound sentence can stand independently of each other even though the connective might establish a sequential causal or blameful relationship between the clauses. Where one clause depends grammatically on another the multi-clause sentence is then complex. Sentences with subordinate clauses The man who was fat could barely walk or relative clauses She told me that he was fat are chained together with subordinating conjunctions that or relative pronouns who which . In complex sentences one clause is independent and the others are dependent on that main clause. Sentences can be multiply embedded with an alpha main clause and then beta gamma delta and further Greek-labelled clauses to the point of comedy The man who ate the huge pie which was full of steak that had been cooked by his mother who hadn t realised really how huge he was already which was quite a mistake given the fact that her son s health was suffering as a result of his poor diet was fat. Sentences with a great deal of embedded subordination and a great deal of syntactic complexity are very common in legal language where concepts need to be explicitly connected without the .