TAILIEUCHUNG - Pesticide Residues in Coastal Tropical Ecosystems: Distribution, fate and effects - Chapter 8

C h Dang Duc Nhan 180 a p t e r 8 Distribution, fate, and impact of pesticides in the tropical marine environment of Vietnam Dang Duc Nhan P E S T I C I D E R E G U L AT I O N I N V I E T N A M History of pesticides and pesticide legislation The history of pesticide use in agriculture in Vietnam is short. Before 1950, malaria was a widespread disease among the Vietnamese people. At that time, French and native physicians trained the people to sleep under nets to protect against Anopheles mosquitoes, which are the. | Chapter 8 Distribution fate and impact of pesticides in the tropical marine environment of Vietnam Dang Duc Nhan PESTICIDE REGULATION IN VIETNAM History of pesticides and pesticide legislation The history of pesticide use in agriculture in Vietnam is short. Before 1950 malaria was a widespread disease among the Vietnamese people. At that time French and native physicians trained the people to sleep under nets to protect against Anopheles mosquitoes which are the vectors for malaria. During the period of 1950 to 1960 dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethane DDT and a technical mixture of hexachlorocyclohexane HCH - termed 666 by the Vietnamese - were applied over all Vietnamese territory to control the mosquitoes responsible for vectoring malaria which at that time had become epidemic. The DDT and HCH insecticides were donated to Vietnam by either the former Soviet Union or the People s Republic of China. Since 1960 Vietnam has maintained control of malaria through the use of insecticide applications. OP pesticides particularly methyl parathion were introduced into Vietnam in the early 1960s and methyl parathion quickly became the most commonly applied insecticide. It is primarily used for insect control during vegetable crop production. In 1978 2-sec-buthylphenylmethyl carbamate BPMC was introduced as an effective insecticide for controlling brown planthopper BPH Nilaparvata lugens Stâl Homoptera Delphacidae which is problematic in rice culture. Since 1983 the pyrethroids cypermethrin and fenvalerate have replaced the OPs and carbamates. Many pests and rice diseases had become resistant to both classes of older pesticides. The extensive use of pesticides in Vietnamese agriculture since 1980 has made them an important element in the cost structure of agricultural activities of Vietnamese farmers. Indeed their regular use has been linked to the rise of the BPH as a serious rice pest as outbreaks of this delphacid in tropical rice resulted from the destruction of effective .

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