TAILIEUCHUNG - How the Japanese Learn to Work 2nd edition phần 2

Động từ được chia để thể hiện thì, có hai thì: quá khứ và hiện tại, hay phi-quá khứ được dùng để chỉ cả hiện tại lẫn tương lai. Đối với các động từ miêu tả một quá trình đang xảy ra, hình thức -te iru chỉ thì tiếp diễn. Đối với các động từ khác miêu tả sự thay đổi trạng thái, hình thức -te iru chỉ một thì hoàn thành. | 1 The general school system Much has been written about the contribution to Japan s economic efficiency of its general school system the so-called 6-3-3-4 system under the control of the Ministry of Education comprising Kindergarten which now enrols most 5-year-olds and well over a third of the 4-year-olds too. Primary schools 6-12 and middle schools 12-15 of the compulsory education age span. High schools 15-18 both general and vocational which enrol about 95 per cent of the age group in their first year and graduate about 90 per cent. Two-year colleges 18-20 and four-year universities 18-22 with both vocationally specific and vocationally unspecific courses which enrol nearly 40 per cent of the age group in their first years and graduate over nine-tenths of them. Five-year 15-20 Colleges of Technology with about two per cent of the age group. Japan is well known for having what is probably in the younger age groups the world s best educated at least most educated population. The rapid expansion of the system and the by international standards very high enrolment levels in secondary and higher education are clear enough from Table showing the change over forty years in the educational experience of new labour force entrants in manufacturing and finance. Let us begin by listing some of the other main characteristics of the system besides its quantitative diffusion. It is maintained at relatively low public cost absorbing in 1991 approximately 17 per cent of public expenditure 9 per cent of central and 23 per cent of local but out of a total public expenditure budget of only about 30 per cent of GNP. Pupils and their parents provide Table Educational composition of intake of new graduates in selected industries 1955-94 Unit thousands per cent Graduates of Manufacturing 1955 1965 1975 1985 1994 Middle school 15 264 72 387 55 49 15 16 6 High school 18 86 23 255 36 184 57 225 65 148 52 Technical college 20 0 0 4 1 4 1 4 1 Junior college 20 2 1 9 7 20 19 30 9 27

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