TAILIEUCHUNG - A Purchasing Manager's Guide to Strategic Proactive Procurement phần 2

có thẩm quyền liên quan đến vấn đề được bảo hiểm. Nó được bán với sự hiểu biết rằng nhà xuất bản không tham gia vẽ quy phạm pháp luật, kế toán, hoặc các dịch vụ chuyên nghiệp khác. Nếu pháp luật terials hợp đồng phục vụ lợi ích tốt nhất của cả hai bên. | Page 25 Integrated product development is a concept of product development that integrates all the people resources control and communication systems business methods and program organizations around the product. It differs from most traditional approaches in that it focuses on and is organized around the product being developed rather than the disciplines required to produce the product. This integration concentrates resources and knowledge. It also provides employees with the sense of product ownership required for on-time delivery at the lowest cost. The Design Process and Procurement Design is an interative process that results from the progression of an abstract notion to something concrete that has function and a fixed form. This form can be described so that it can be produced at a designated quality. Describing requirements is discussed in Chapter 3. The design stage is frequently the only point at which a major portion of the cost of producing an item can be reduced or controlled. If costs are not controlled at this time they may be built into the item permanently resulting in an expensive noncompetitive product. General Motors states that 70 of the cost of manufacturing truck transmissions is determined at the design The design stage is the point at which the desired levels of quality and reliability must be engineered into the item. Quality is the basic nature or degree of excellence that an item possesses. Reliability is the degree of confidence or probability that an item will perform to requirements a specified number of times under prescribed conditions. J. M. Juran a widely published authority in the field of quality indicates that 20-40 of the field failures experienced by durable goods manufactured in America originate during development and design. This chapter s opening case study showed how faulty purchased material drove manufacturing costs up on one of the company s previous production items. Had All American Test Equipment not had .