TAILIEUCHUNG - Bài giảng công nghệ môi trường_3

Tham khảo bài viết 'bài giảng công nghệ môi trường_3', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ môi trường phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả | VAN LANG UNIVERSITY DI PARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZED ENGLISH - SEMESTER 5 Chapter 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE TREATMENT COMPOSTING Dr. Tran Thi My Dieu WHY COMPOSTING WHY COMPOSTING Landfilling Transforms waste in to compost Advantages Disadvantages WASTE -------- LANDFILL Simple system Easy operation Versatile Emissions Landscape decline Odour hindrance Cheap Difficult to plan COMPOSTING COMPOST AGRICULTURE GARDENING Loss of resource Wastes in to compost chain is feasible only if Compost quality meet farmers demand VAN LANG UNIVERSITY DENTEMA COMPOST QUALITY COMPOST QUALITY Product quality 1 free of contaminants Contaminants Nutrients Pathogens Stability organic matter Non-compostables Glass Stones Plastic Chemicals Heavy metals Chemical waste Pesticide residues 1 COMPOST QUALITY Management of contaminants COMPOST QUALITY Product quality 2 nutrients Waste separation at source household markets Industry Mechanical Separation sieves magnetic density Macro nutrients N P K S availability Micro nutrients Cu Zn etc. heavy metals Desired Level depends on Application Composting PAH COMPOST QUALITY Product quality 3 free of pathogens COMPOST QUALITY Product quality 4 stability Free sufficient low level to prevent contamination Human animal plant all of concern Sanitation is effect of Stability sufficient low level of aerobic activity under standardized conditions of Temperature Moisture Oxygen Stability or to standard Temperature Moisture WHY STABILITY Odour Regrowth of pathogens Plant disease Supression Attraction of flies Prevention of oxygen depletion in growing media Structural stability in growing media Damage to the root is damage to the plant 2 COMPOSTING PROCESS Composting basic representation OM O2 ----- CO2 H2O heat Microbial Reaction Optimal Process Optimal Conditions for Microbes 5 COMPOSTING PROCESS Process conditions C N 25 1 T 45-55 oC optimum O2 5 h2o 40-60 Bulk Density 450-600 kg m3 COMPOSTING PROCESS