Chemists describe the acidity by means of the pH scale. Pure water is neither acidic nor basic; it is neutral with a pH of 7. Acids have a pH less than 7. The lower the pH is, the more acidic a substance will be. The pH scale is logarithmic. That means that if we compare two liquids, one with a pH of 6 and the other with a pH of 3, we cannot say that the former is twice as acidic as the latter. In fact, it is 1000 times more acidic. Each change of 1 pH unit represents a change in acidity of. | Introduction to Wastewater Treatment Processes R. s. Rama ho LAVAL UNIVERSITY QUEBEC CANADA ACADEMIC PRESS New York San Francisco London 1977 A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers Copyright 1977 BY Academic Press. Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY RECORDING OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS INC. Ill Fifth Avenue New York New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by __ ACADEMIC PRESS INC. LONDON LTD. 24 28 Oval Road. London NW I Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Ramalho Rubens Sette. Introduction to wastewater treatment processes. Bibliography p. Includes index. 1. Sewage-Purification. - 1 ÍỸéĩỗớỔ I. Title. 76-26185 1 V o 9 7 I nr- I 1 rniC 11 1 . wa waw - VB Contents Preface ix 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction 1 2. The Role of the Engineer in Water Pollution Abatement 2 3. Degrees of Wastewater Treatment and Water Quality Standards 8 4. Sources of Wastewaters 9 5. Economics of Wastewater Treatment and Economic Balance for Water Reuse 10 6. Effect of Water Pollution on Environment and Biota 14 7. Eutrophication 22 8. Types of Water Supply and Classification of Water Contaminants 22 References 25 2 CHARACTERIZATION OF DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS 1. Measurement of Concentration of Contaminants in Wastewaters 26 2. Measurement of Organic Content Group 1 Oxygen Parameter Methods 27 3. Measurement of Organic Content Group 2 Carbon Parameter Methods 44 4. Mathematical Model for the BOD Curve 47 5. Determination of Parameters k and Lo 48 6. Relationship between k and Ratio BODS BODU 58 7. Environmental Effects on the BOD Test 58 8. Nitrification 59 9. Evaluation of Feasibility of Biological Treatment for an Industrial Wastewater 61 10. Characteristics of Municipal Sewage 65 11. Industrial Wastewater Surveys 66 .

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