TAILIEUCHUNG - Pesticide Residues in Coastal Tropical Ecosystems: Distribution, fate and effects - Chapter 11

Việc sử dụng thuốc bảo vệ thực vật tại Mexico bắt đầu vào cuối thế kỷ l9th. Trong năm 1898, khoảng 38 hợp chất khác nhau đã được sử dụng để bảo vệ các cây trồng và các loại ngũ cốc từ sâu bệnh. Các thuốc trừ sâu được sử dụng phổ biến nhất dẫn arsenate, acetoarsenate đồng (Paris xanh), hydrogen cyanide, axit cacboxylic, và hỗn hợp các đồng sunfat và hydroxit canxi (Bordeaux hỗn hợp) (Restrepo, 1988). Ứng dụng chuyên sâu các loại thuốc bảo vệ thực vật bắt đầu vào giữa thập kỷ 1940 đến 1950 khi những. | Chapter II Pesticides in the coastal zone of Mexico F. Gonzalez-Farias PESTICIDE REGULATION IN MEXICO History of pesticide usage The use of pesticides in Mexico began at the end of the l9th century. In 1898 approximately 38 different compounds were in use to protect crops and grains from pests. The most commonly used pesticides were lead arsenate copper acetoarsenate Paris green hydrogen cyanide carboxylic acid and a mixture of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide Bordeaux mixture Restrepo 1988 . Intensive application of pesticides began in the middle of the 1940 to 1950 decade when these compounds were used to augment crop production and to satisfy the quality requirements of the export market. The main crops cultivated in Mexico since those years are wheat maize beans soybean rice carthamus safflower chickpeas sorghum cotton sugarcane coffee fruits oranges bananas mangoes etc. and horticultural products tomato cucumber eggplant chili squash etc. all of which demand the use of great quantities of agrochemicals CAADES 1987 . Economic conditions in Mexico at the start of intensive pesticide application and the very positive economic impact of crop exportation generated a huge demand for pesticides which gave rise to the development of several industries dedicated to their importation production and formulation Restrepo 1988 . In 1947 the first inorganic insecticide copper arsenate was produced in Mexico and in 1959 the production of OCs DDT HCB and thiocarbamates was initiated. In addition to the OCs being produced in Mexico a great quantity was imported. By the end of the 1960s around 165 pesticides were being imported from several different countries Restrepo 1988 . The quantity of imported OCs reached a peak of 12 000 T in 1958 and thereafter it declined sharply due to increased domestic production Albert 1996 . In 1968 Mexico s government was strongly promoting the production of the OC pesticides DDT HCB and toxaphene by a government-owned company FERTIMEX .

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