TAILIEUCHUNG - Pesticide Residues in Coastal Tropical Ecosystems: Distribution, fate and effects - Chapter 10

Việt Nam là một quần đảo, được tìm thấy ngoài khơi bờ biển phía đông nam của lục địa châu Á, bao gồm hòn đảo được chia thành ba nhóm: Luzon, Visayas và Mindanao với tổng diện tích đất của khoảng km2 (Atlas Philippines, 1975). Việt Nam là tiếp tục chia thành 16 khu vực, bao gồm một số tỉnh trồng lúa, ngô, chuối, dứa, dừa, mía, xoài, và các loại rau là cây trồng chính (Hình ). Tổng diện tích mặt nước của Việt Nam là hơn bảy lần so với diện tích đất. Đường bờ biển. | Chapter 10 Ecotoxicology of pesticides in Philippine aquatic ecosystems Cristina M. Bajet INTRODUCTION The Philippines is an archipelago found off the southeastern coast of the Asian mainland composed of 7 107 islands divided into three groups Luzon Visayas and Mindanao with a total land area of approximately 300 000 km2 The Philippine Atlas 1975 . The Philippines is further subdivided into 16 regions each composed of several provinces growing rice corn bananas pineapples coconuts sugarcane mangos and vegetables as major crops Figure . The total water area of the Philippines is more than seven times the land area. This extensive coastline of about 17 460 km offers livelihoods to more than one million people. Consequently the Philippines is the 12th largest fish-producing country in the world Aypa 1991 Munoz 1997 BFAR 2001 . The M km2 of marine resources are composed of 12 percent coastal and 88 percent oceanic waters BFAR 1996 2001 . The aquatic environment is not limited to the sea as there is also vast hectarage of inland waters consisting of swamplands lakes rivers reservoirs and small impoundments. These impoundments include fish ponds and irrigated rice fields with an additional aggregate area of M ha where fish are produced Aypa 1991 . In 1995 fish production from commercial percent municipal percent and aquaculture percent fisheries was M T with a value of US billion BFAR 1996 see Figure . Production increased to and percent respectively in 2000 equivalent to M T and a percent positive growth over the previous year. Municipal fisheries production includes fishing in coastal and inland waters with or without boats of 3 tons displacement whereas commercial fisheries production is from offshore waters with the use of fishing vessels of 3 tons. Among the major regional contributors to total fish production Region IV was the largest producer percent followed by ARMM percent where .

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