TAILIEUCHUNG - How the Japanese Learn to Work 2nd edition phần 7

Nó gần tương tự với từ là, thì, ở trong tiếng Anh nhưng thường có vai trò khác nữa, đó là một từ đánh dấu thì khi động từ được chia ở thì quá khứ datta (suồng sã), deshita (lịch sự). Điều này được sử dụng bởi vì chỉ có hình dung từ và động từ là có thể mang thì trong tiếng Nhật. | 106 How the Japanes learn to work apt learners as those the firm could cream off from the 15-year-old schoolleaving cohorts of the 1950s. The men who became the imaginative foremen and leaders of quality circles in the 1970s and 1980s and who some managers lament are not going to have any successors. Nevertheless the assertion is made that the products of these junior colleges being better educated are going to be better foremen than their predecessors people who can perform roles intermediate between craftsmen and technologists craftsmen who can talk the same language as technologists. It is still a minority of firms which have such a fully elaborated training system. Of the 325 firms in Sample 3 the more training-minded of the 2 000 biggest firms it will be recalled 44 per cent said they had some sort of training school or training centre and 27 per cent said they had one which contributed to the training of shopfloor workers though this most certainly does not mean that anything like that percentage had craft-technician training schemes of the NEC type in-house. And even in NEC of course the schools absorb only a minority of the annual intake. Initial training for most new employees is a rather shorter affair which may involve some learning of basic skills in common use in the firm but also includes a good deal of general instruction in the nature of the firm s business as well as a good deal of morale building loyalty building and general spiritual integration see Rohlen 1974 for a splendidly detailed description of the graduate induction programme of a West Japan bank . The length of the induction training varies. In the 49 firms which reported in the Sample 2 inquiry in the mid-1980s the range was from one week to two months for high school graduates and from one to five months for university graduates. The 1994 sample was not asked to differentiate between the intakes for induction courses but the overall pattern seems little changed Kigyo 1986 and 1994 . .

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