TAILIEUCHUNG - The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics Part 35

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics Part 35. In the past decade, Cognitive Linguistics has developed into one of the most dynamic and attractive frameworks within theoretical and descriptive linguistics The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics is a major new reference that presents a comprehensive overview of the main theoretical concepts and descriptive/theoretical models of Cognitive Linguistics, and covers its various subfields, theoretical as well as applied. | 310 WALTER DE MULDER view at least in the epistemic sense it is no longer the subject who undergoes a force and is driven along a deductive path reality itself evolves in a structured world there is an essential force-dynamic element to our conception of its structure which we can see as constraining and influencing elements that unfold within it Langacker 1991 276 . Langacker nevertheless holds that his account is not necessarily incompatible with Sweetser s since the speaker is the person responsible for assessing the structure of reality and the future course of events 274 . Achard s 1996 1998 analysis of the French modals pouvoir can and devoir must combines elements from both Sweetser s and Langacker s analyses. Following Sweetser Achard 1998 145-59 uses the terms force and barrier to define the root senses of these French modals in 39 pouvoir meaning possibility expresses the removal or the absence of a potential external barrier or obstacle which stands between the subject and the accomplishment of the infinitival 39 Il peut venir vous voir domain. He can come and see you tomorrow. As such the root meaning ofpouvoir differs from its uses as a main verb as in 40 where it expresses ability 40 Marie est forte elle peut soulever cent kilos. Marie is strong she is able to lift one hundred kilos. Indeed whereas in 40 the subject can be identified with the locus of potency in 39 the locus of potency can be identified with external factors removing the barrier. Thus as was already pointed out by Langacker the locus of potency gets more diffused at the same time however the speaker gets more and more involved since he or she is aware of these external circumstances whereas the subject is not. FORCE DyNAMICS 311 The same holds with respect to devoir s root meaning of obligation where the locus of potency Talmy s Antagonist is also associated not with the subject but with the speaker 41 or with a more diffused source of obligation 42 41 Vous devez rentrer à