TAILIEUCHUNG - Partial-State-of-Charge

The 150 years history of the lead–acid battery has seen technological improvements in numerous areas, including grid alloy, jar material, and manufacturing methods. The most notable improvement is the valveregulated lead–acid (VRLA) battery, both absorbent glass mat and gel electrolyte versions. | Partial-State-of-Charge E Dickinson Axion Power International Inc. New Castle PA USA 2009 Elsevier . All rights reserved. Lead-Acid Battery Partial-State-of-Charge The 150 years history of the lead-acid battery has seen technological improvements in numerous areas including grid alloy jar material and manufacturing methods. The most notable improvement is the valve-regulated lead-acid VRLA battery both absorbent glass mat and gel electrolyte versions. The majority of these improvements have focused on conventional float and deep-cycle applications. However there are a growing number of new applications demanding an optimized purpose-built lead-acid battery. Applications such as remote area power supply RAPS systems motive power battery opportunity charging and micro and mild hybrid electric vehicles HEVs are stressing the existing lead-acid battery design in ways these advances have not addressed. The key difference these applications share compared to traditional float and cycling applications is the battery s state of charge SoC during operation. Partial-State-of-Charge State of charge refers to the ampere hour Ah output available at any point during a charge discharge cycle represented as a percentage of the battery Ah label rating. Discharging a battery to 80 a common lower limit or 80 depth-of-discharge DoD leaves 20 of the rated Ah available hence a 20 SoC. The lack of a predictable charge discharge pattern is the biggest challenge to the systematic investigation and design of an optimized battery for partial-state-of-charge PSoC applications. In the case of a RAPS system natural renewable energy solar wind or hydroelectric energy sources available in remote locations where typical power grids are not present is stored in lead-acid batteries for later delivery during peak demand. Simulated testing requires assumptions about the available energy input weather conditions conversion efficiency and so on and the expected usage output. Likewise the same is true

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