TAILIEUCHUNG - Gale Encyclopedia Of American Law 3Rd Edition Volume 9 P52

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law Volume 9 P52 fully illuminates today's leading cases, major statutes, legal terms and concepts, notable persons involved with the law, important documents and more. Legal issues are fully discussed in easy-to-understand language, including such high-profile topics as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, physician-assisted suicide and thousands more. | 498 TELEVISION Cable operators negotiated system requirements and pricing with local governments but federal law imposed some restrictions on rates to consumers. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 deregulated cable television rates in part because of increased interest by telephone companies in entering the cable market by sending programming through existing phone lines. The act permits phone companies to provide video programming directly to subscribers in their service areas. Even prior to deregulation in 1996 companies in the telecommunications industry had been involved in major mergers. In 1985 Capital Cities acquired the ABC network and one year later General Electric acquired NBC. In 1995 two major mergers occurred as Westinghouse bought CBS for a reported billion and the Walt Disney Company purchased Capital Cities ABC for a reported 19 billion. Disney went on to purchase or otherwise acquire a wide range of cable networks as well including ESPN Fox Family Worldwide the History Channel and E Entertainment Television. Since deregulation companies have merged to create even larger media conglomerates. A number of commentators have questioned whether the presence of a few enormous entities would stifle competition in the industry. Others questioned whether federal antitrust policy would need to be adapted to address concerns about such large corporations owning multiple media entities. Many of these questions have gone unanswered and in many ways consumers have benefited from the products that these conglomerates offer. For instance since the late 1990s the ABC network has enhanced its sports coverage through its association with ESPN by offering dual coverage of certain sporting events such as professional football. For customers who cannot obtain cable television programming the transmission of television signals by satellite has been a practical solution. In the 1990s however direct broadcast satellite DBS systems began to compete with cable television

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