TAILIEUCHUNG - Gale Encyclopedia Of American Law 3Rd Edition Volume 9 P25

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law Volume 9 P25 fully illuminates today's leading cases, major statutes, legal terms and concepts, notable persons involved with the law, important documents and more. Legal issues are fully discussed in easy-to-understand language, including such high-profile topics as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, physician-assisted suicide and thousands more. | 228 SLAVERY Reparations The . government enacted the THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT to abolish slavery but it has never formally apologized to African Americans for their enslavement nor offered financial reparations to compensate them for their peonage. Since the end of the . CIVIL WAR there have been occasional calls by African Americans for reparations but political and legal efforts have always failed. However in the 1990s a new movement for slavery reparations began to coalesce led by a group of scholars and lawyers. This group has been encouraged by the payment of reparations to Jewish Holocaust victims by German corporations that employed slave labor and by the . government s payment of 60 000 to every Japanese American person held in detention camps during WORLD WAR II. Nevertheless the slavery reparations issue arouses strong emotions in those opposed to the idea. In addition legal doctrines make the prospect of court victories unlikely. The idea of reparations is rooted in the field order issued by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman as he conquered several Southern states during the last months of the Civil War. Sherman s order authorized the distribution of 40 acres of Southern land to each freed slave and the loan of a government mule to work the land. The promise of 40 acres and a mule proved illusory however as Congress failed to ratify such a program. In short order Southern whites reclaimed their land and Southern blacks became sharecroppers renting out land in return for a meager financial return. A reparations lawsuit against the . TREASURY DEPARTMENT was dismissed in 1915 but in the 1920s Marcus Garvey made reparations part of his Black Nationalist program. In the 1950s and 1960s Elijah Muhammad leader of the Nation of Islam preached black separatism and called on the government to give blacks land as reparations for slavery. During the civil rights movement of the 1960s reparations were ignored with leaders focusing on political and civil

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