TAILIEUCHUNG - Gale Encyclopedia Of American Law 3Rd Edition Volume 1 P18

Gale Encyclopedia of American Law Volume 1 P18 fully illuminates today's leading cases, major statutes, legal terms and concepts, notable persons involved with the law, important documents and more. Legal issues are fully discussed in easy-to-understand language, including such high-profile topics as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, physician-assisted suicide and thousands more. | 158 AFFIRM husband and his wife s relations by blood or between the wife and the husband s relations by blood. Secondary affinity is between a spouse and the other spouse s relatives by marriage. Collateral affinity exists between a spouse and the relatives of the other spouse s relatives. The determination of affinity is important in various legal matters such as deciding whether to prosecute a person for incest or whether to disqualify a juror for bias. AFFIRM To ratify establish or reassert. To make a solemn and formal declaration as a substitute for an oath that the statements contained in an affidavit are true or that a witness will tell the truth. In the practice of appellate courts to declare a judgment decree or order valid and to concur in its correctness so that it must stand as rendered in the lower court. As a matter of pleading to allege or aver a matter of fact. A judgment decree or order that is not affirmed is either remanded sent back to the lower court with instructions to correct the irregularities noted in the appellate opinion or reversed changed by the appellate court so that the decision of the lower court is overturned . AFFIRMANCE A declaration by an appellate court that a judgment order or decree of a lower court that has been brought before it for review is valid and will be upheld. AFFIRMATION A solemn and formal declaration of the truth of a statement such as an affidavit or the actual or prospective testimony of a witness or a party that takes the place of an oath. An affirmation is also used when a person cannot take an oath because of religious convictions. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION Employment programs required by federal statutes and regulations designed to remedy discriminatory practices in hiring minority group members . positive steps designed to eliminate existing and continuing discrimination to remedy lingering effects of past discrimination and to create systems and procedures to prevent future discrimination commonly based on .