TAILIEUCHUNG - ACT Practice Test 4

The following passage is excerpted from A Short History of Western Civilization by John Harrison, Richard Sullivan, and Dennis Sherman. (©1990 by McGraw-Hill. Reprinted by permission.) Enlightenment ideas were put forth by a variety of intellectuals who in France came to be known as the philosophes. Philosophes is French for philosophers, and in a sense these thinkers were rightly considered philosophers, for the questions they dealt with were philosophical: How do we discover truth? | ACT Practice Test 4 READING Passage XIII HUMANITIES The following passage is excerpted from A Short History of Western Civilization by John Harrison Richard Sullivan and Dennis Sherman. 1990 by McGraw-Hill. Reprinted by permission. Enlightenment ideas were put forth by a variety of intellectuals who in France came to be known as the philosophes. Philosophes is French for philosophers and in a sense these thinkers were rightly considered 5 philosophers for the questions they dealt with were philosophical How do we discover truth How should life be lived What is the nature of God But on the whole the term has a meaning different from the usual 10 meaning of philosopher. The philosophes were intellectuals often not formally trained or associated with a university. They were usually more literary than scientific. They generally extended applied popularized or 15 propagandized ideas of others rather than originating those ideas themselves. The philosophes were more likely to write plays satires pamphlets or simply participate in verbal exchanges at select gatherings than to 20 write formal philosophical books. It was the philosophes who developed the philosophy of the Enlightenment and spread it to much of the educated elite in Western Europe and the American 25 colonies . Although the sources for their philosophy can be traced to the Scientific Revolution in general the philosophes were most influenced by their understanding of Newton Locke and English institutions. 30 The philosophes saw Newton as the great synthesizer of the Scientific Revolution who rightly described the universe as ordered mechanical material and only originally set in motion by God who since 35 then has remained relatively inactive. Newton s synthesis showed to the philosophes that reason and nature were compatible Nature functioned logically and discernibly and what was natural was also reasonable. 40 Newton exemplified the value of reasoning based on concrete experience. The philosophes felt .