TAILIEUCHUNG - Introdungcing English language part 4

Introdungcing English language part 4: 'In this exciting new textbook, Louise Mullany and Peter Stockwell have provided a fresh and imaginative set of alternatives for teaching and learning a huge amount about the English language. The book allows tor creative and lateral approaches to developing an understanding of important linguistic concepts and, together with the thought-provoking activities, and accessible readings, guarantees there is something to stimulate every learner. | 4 INTRODUCTION KEY BASIC CONCEPTS Articulators and articulation As we have seen above articulators are the specific parts of the vocal tract that are responsible for sound production. An individual speaker has a number of articulators lips teeth tongue alveolar ridge the ridge in the roof of the mouth behind the front teeth hard palate the hard bony area behind the alveolar ridge soft palate the soft fleshy part behind the hard palate uvula the back of the soft palate vocal cords The most important articulators are our lips and tongue. The articulators are listed above in order starting from the very front of the mouth through to the back of the oral tract. Trace these different locations in your own mouth using your tongue. Begin with your lips and then work your way through to the uvula. You can feel where your vocal cords are by placing your fingers on the outside of your windpipe in your neck. Do this and then articulate the phoneme z . You should be able to feel your vocal cords vibrating - z is what is known as a voiced sound. Other sounds are voiceless when articulated - there is no vibration of the vocal cords. To illustrate articulate the phoneme s with your fingers on your vocal cords. You should not be able to feel any vibration. All sounds start in the lungs and then get manipulated on their way through the oral tract. Interestingly consonant and vowel sounds vary quite significantly in how they are produced. Consonants are formed when the airflow stemming from the lungs is obstructed at some point. The lips and the tongue are most frequently responsible for the obstruction which then results in consonant sounds being realised. Phoneticians have devised a three-part system in order to describe consonant sounds Place of articulation Where does the air stream become obstructed Manner of articulation How is it manipulated Is the sound voiced or voiceless The first category which is used in order to describe the place of articulation of consonant sounds is