TAILIEUCHUNG - Variability in plant pathogens and tools for its characterization

One of the major constraints to crop production is the biotic stress which is being caused by various fungi, bacteria and viruses. Successful management of plant disease is mainly dependent on the accurate and efficient detection of plant pathogens, amount of genetic and pathogenic variability present in pathogen population, development of resistant cultivars and deploying of effective resistance gene in different epidemiological region. In case of most of the fungal and bacterial diseases, the main reason for frequent ―breakdown‖ of effective resistances is the variability that exists in the pathogen population, which necessitates a continual replacement of cultivars due to disease susceptibility. Mechanism of variability in case of fungi includes mutation, recombination, heterokaryosis, parasexulaism, heteroploidy and in bacteria are conjugation, transformation and transduction. Variability in viruses is generated by mechanisms of recombination, reassortment and mutation. The conventional methods for identifying the variability in the pathogens at species, subspecies and intra sub species level is being done by study of virulence reactions using disease rating scales on set of host differentials. Molecular techniques are more precise tools for differentiation between species, and identification of new strains/ isolates. | Variability in plant pathogens and tools for its characterization