TAILIEUCHUNG - Introdungcing English language part 45

Introdungcing English language part 45: 'In this exciting new textbook, Louise Mullany and Peter Stockwell have provided a fresh and imaginative set of alternatives for teaching and learning a huge amount about the English language. The book allows tor creative and lateral approaches to developing an understanding of important linguistic concepts and, together with the thought-provoking activities, and accessible readings, guarantees there is something to stimulate every learner. | D9 250 EXTENSION LINGUISTIC READINGS Lesley Milroy and Matthew Gordon workplace and exposure to non-local language varieties. However the subtlety of Lippi-Green s network measurement scale allowed her to examine correlations both with all of it and with some parts of it revealing among other things gender-specific social trajectories of language change and variation. In addressing the changing language behaviour of mobile individuals Bortoni-Ricardo s account of the sociolinguistic adjustment of rural migrants to Brazlandia a satellite city of Brasilia operationalized the network concept very differently from any of the studies discussed so far. Again social class was not a particularly useful category in this context since it did not discriminate between the individuals studied all of whom were relatively poor. Taking the group s own linguistic norms as a starting point Bortoni-Ricardo examined the extent to which speakers had moved away from their stigmatized Caipira dialect rather than attempting to identify a linguistic standard target. Much as Labov in New York City she was able to build on ongoing work by sociologists in developing her social framework. Bortoni-Ricardo s main hypothesis was that the change in social structure associated with rural to urban migration involves a move from an insulated network consisting largely of kinsfolk and neighbours to an integrated urban network where links are less multiplex but are contracted in a wider range of social contexts. The linguistic counterpart of this change is increasing dialect diffuseness - a movement away from the relatively focused norms of the Caipira dialect see Le Page and Tabouret-Keller 1985 for an elaboration of the notions of focusing and diffusion . Two separate network indices are constructed to measure the changing patterns of the migrants social relationships the integration index and the urbanization index. The integration index assesses relevant characteristics of the three persons with .